- What is the origin of the wild bull?
The whild bull fits in the species Bos Taurus. It descends from a primitive animal, who lived in freedom in the forests of Europe, Asia and Africa and that received the denomination of Uro or Auroque (Bos Primigenius), as it was designated by the towns of Gaul. Its etymological meaning can be translated as a wild bull. The Auroque is one of the most portrayed animals in the paleolithic art, as can be seen in the caves of Lascaux (15,000-13,000 BC, France) or Altamira (18,500-13,000 BC, Spain) 15.000 BC, Portugal). They were animals of aggressive behavior and of great stature, being that the average height of the males was around 1,80 meters and would have a weight around the 1000 kilos. They had black fur or flava (orange), with a clear list on the loin and a great encornadura, with the horns to be able to measure about 80 centimeters. Aurochus lived in Asia (Mesopotamia), Africa (Egypt) and Europe, reaching our continent from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor in successive migrations. There are authors who claim that they will have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula from the North of Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. The Auroque was extinguished in the seventeenth century. The last Auroch was hunted in 1627, in Poland, in the Jaktorowka forest.
The current bull, descended from this ancestral cattle, was saved from extinction due to its participation in the bullfights, having disappeared from all countries where there are no bullfights.
- What is the evolution of the bull?
The cattle ranchers of bulls come up with the professionalization of bullfighting on foot in the middle of the eighteenth century. Before this time the bull was a wild animal that lived in the forests of the Iberian peninsula. The wild bull we know today is the result of more than three centuries of careful selection of bullfighters, who throughout this time have been selecting behavioral and morphological characters (aspect) of this animal, in a constant search for bravery. In this way, today we can say that the bull is culture, that is, it is the result of the mixture between the natural characteristics of this extraordinary animal and the action of the man, in his selection.
- How do you create the Bulls?
The creation of the wild bull is recognized as a form of animal breeding of excellence, both for the promotion of animal welfare, its ecological impact and preservation of biodiversity.
The wild bull is created in an extensive regime (in freedom) in large stretches of mount and grassland, contributing to the preservation of the ecosystem of the mount and weir, and the biodiversity of the species of fauna and flora that inhabit them. Around the wild bull develop other animals such as the deer, the boar, the hare, the crane ... The EU defines as criterion of animal welfare for the creation of a bovine that has a space of 9m2. In Portugal each toilet has an average of 30,000 m2 of living space. A gigantic difference. All these data make the bull to be the animal created by the man with greater welfare.
Several herdsmen are situated on land belonging to the Natura 2000 network (an ecological network for the European Union's community area which aims to ensure the long-term conservation of Europe's most endangered species and habitats, thereby helping to halt the loss of biodiversity) And some of them are linked to nature conservation programs and endangered species, such as the Iberian lynx and black vulture.
No other man-made animal is created on such large tracts of land. In fact, the creation of the wild bull is an absolutely exemplary case of animal breeding with high rates of animal welfare, being a guardian of biodiversity.
- Does the Bull suffer in bullfights?
According to the most recent scientific studies on the wild bull, we know that it has unique hormonal reactions in the animal kingdom (which allow it to anesthetize almost immediately). We know, for example, that it has a hypothalamus (part of the brain that synthesizes the neurohormones in charge, namely the regulation of stress or defense functions), 20% higher than all other bovines, and therefore has A higher capacity for the secretion of beta-endorphins (hormone and natural anesthesiaste in charge of blocking the pain receptors), which causes the bull to put on a bandarilla instead of retreating, which is the natural reaction of Any animal to pain. The bull is selected taking into account its combativeness, being an animal that has evolved, over the centuries, being physiologically adapted to the lide.
- How to select the Bulls?
The emergence of wild cattle raches promoted one of the earliest forms of zootechnical selection worldwide. The selection of the wild breed developed by the herdsmen in the last 300 years is a broad cultural legacy, since the selection of the wild bull is the reverse of the selection of the other tame cattle. Therefore, the cattle ranch preserved behavioral, morphological and functional aspects of the primitive cattle that were eliminated in the selection of the other bovine races, namely the aggressive character, the development of the stems and the displacement at a gallop.
The selection of the aggressive character of the brave bull by Man gave birth to the Bravura. This is a concept that is difficult to define and change over time. A bull considered brave in the nineteenth century would hardly be so understood today. In a simple way it can be said that bravery is the ability of the brave bull to fight fearlessly and bravely. More specifically, it may be considered that bravery is a set of characteristics that the brave bull must possess, such as ability to undertake, mobility, nobility, travel, transmission, ferocity, fixity, among others.
- What is the name of a Bull according to his age?
From birth to adulthood, the brave bull undergoes several transformations in both its physical aspect and its behavior. The gestation in the brave race lasts approximately 9 months. At the moment of delivery the angry cow departs and seeks protection from a difficult access zone protected by vegetation. There you have your offspring quickly, ingesting the placenta to prevent any predators from detecting the newborn baby. Until it rises, the baby remains lying on the ground, also to avoid being detected by predators. The bravery that brave bulls carry in their genes is such that in many cases small calves, with a few hours of life, invest and attack much larger opponents, such as humans or even jeeps.
According to their age the bulls and brave cows have the following names: Añojo / Añoja (calf / heifer with 1 year of age); Eral / Erala (2-year old claw / claw); Utrero / Utrera (bull / heifer with 3 years of age); Cuatreño / Cuatreña (toiro / vaca brava with 4 years of age); Cinqueño / Cinqueña (toiro / vaca brava with 5 years old). A bull is considered to reach adulthood by the age of 4 years.
- Quanto tempo vive um animal de raça brava?
In relation to other cattle, the wild bull has a much longer life with an unbeatable level of well-being. While the bovine meat breeds live for a maximum of 2 years, brave males, the only ones that are dealt with in bullrings, live on average 4 years, while unmarried females live their entire life in freedom in the field. In a cattle ranch that has 350 heads of brave cattle, on average only 40 animals are treated per year, that is, only about 11% of the brave animals will go to the square. The few that are dealt with allow the rest to live their entire lives in the field.